During the previous 2 decades, the increase in the number of people, leaving in the Oman Sultanate has developed quickly. This is as a result of lifestyle changes amongst the citizens of the country. This has also had an effect on the management of solid waste. Currently, economic diversification and industrial growth is dynamic leading to new sources of revenue. The size and type of waste, generated has also changed with its attendant’s effect on the environment and health. The sultanate has therefore been made to address the issues through environment and health. Awareness amongst the public has been increased on how health and the environment is affected by waste. Oman previously had a poor solid waste management. This motivated the government of Oman to put in place measure to manage solid waste. Furthermore, the government of Oman would ensure the welfare of citizens. The problems of the protection of environment and health is thus been considered as well as solid waste management requirements.
Definition of Solid Waste
Solid waste is the waste which accrues from the activities of humans and animals that are in solid state and thrown away because they are useless or not wanted. Solid waste can be categorized into 3 major types. They include hazardous waste, municipal waste and industrial waste. Solid wastes are made up of various parts which are created from different materials, e.g., construction and demolition wastes, special waste, ash, rubbish and food waste.
Hazardous waste: These are wastes from human activities which affects the environment negatively including explosives, biological wastes, radioactive substances, flammable reactive and chemicals.
Industrial waste: These are wastes that are gotten from power plants, factories and industrial activities including boiler house cinder, shavings, metal scraps and food processing waste.
Municipal: These are waste from treatment plant, municipal services, institutional, commercial and residential sites.
Inorganic and organic wastes are the composite of solid waste from municipal. The waste composition can be classified under glass, plastic, metal, organic and paper amongst others. Many factors affect the composition of waste including culture, energy sources, economic development and climate. The waste composition shows the process of collection and disposition of waste. The composition of waste in Oman is shown in the diagram below.
Figure 1. Oman waste composition percentage
Table 1. Winter season composition of solid waste in municipal
Table 2. Summer season composition of solid waste in Municipal
In Oman, MSW generation has improved from 257,004 to 1,343,486 tons between 2001 and 2009.
Figure 2: Muscat city composition of waste (1)
Solid waste of 1.6 million tons was produced in Oman in 2010, at an average of 1.5kg / person / day.
Figure 3. Muscat waste generation in 2010 (3)
Figure 8 shows 2010 increment in waste quantity
Figure 4: 2010 generation of waste (1)
The figure below shows the large quantity of materials, which can be recycled are available in Oman including paper and cardboard.
Figure 5: 2013 generation of waste (1)
The figure below show that population growth led to an increment in the quantity of waste that was generated.
Figure 6: Generation of solid waste in Municipal (2)
In 2014, 4717 tons of waste was gotten in Muscat. Figure 11 shows an average of 1.2 kg / person / day generation of waste.
Figure 7: Muscat Municipal Generation of Solid Waste (2)
Other Streams of Waste: Tons Quantities
These are demolition and construction waste, batteries, tires, healthcare, electrical and electronic waste amongst others.
Figure 8: (Other Streams of Waste (1)
Regulation and Laws about Solid Waste in Oman
Shown below is Oman’s Framework Structure for Waste Management
Figure 9: Other streams of waste (2)
Overall, the applications of municipal regulations are:
- The landfill and facility for waste treatment will function in a proper way to ensure the protection of the environment.
- License for establishment of sanitary landfills and treatment facilities of waste shall be issued.
- Public health hazards and nuisance shall not be produced by the transportation, storage and collection of waste.
- Collection and transportation of domestic waste must be by the user and in a safe way to agricultural, industrial, commercial and other sites, except in the case of domestic waste.
- Individuals must dispose waste to only authority provided containers.
- Users and occupants of residential houses must carry out their waste disposal only through the established waste collection system.
- All producers of waste products be it in residential, agricultural, industrial and commercial premises amongst others must dispose and store their solid wastes that are not hazardous, in a way that it does not constitute a public health hazard or nuisance.(17)
Based on this, the no 10/82 of the royal decree law for environmental conservation and pollution prevention as well as public interests requirement amendments regulate non-hazardous waste management.
|Ministry||The Regional Municipalities and Environment Ministry|
|The authority in charge of the daily management and operation of disposal and collection of solid waste that is non-hazardous|
Meaning of solid waste that is non-hazardous
|Any semi solid or solid material that doesn’t pose any risk to the health of humans or environment, when it is processed scientifically, including:
· Ashes and slag from processes involving incineration, given that the resources have a toxic constituent present, for which the applied criteria to dewatered sludge characterization from treatment of wastewater.
· Dewatered sludge produced from the treatment of agricultural, industrial or domestic wastewater, which regularly ensures that the sludge does not have toxic contents that are very concentrated beyond what is accepted in the regulations for wastewater.
· Motor vehicles that are discarded and other metal scraps.
· Demolition and construction debris.
· Semi solid or solid material thrown away or made from agricultural, industrial, commercial and residents activities amongst others.
· Waste from household.
|Treatment of waste from household that are non-hazardous and solid||The materials that are non-hazardous and solid that is gotten during activities of a domestic nature. Every biological, chemical, physical and natural step, used on non-hazardous wastes that are solid, so as to achieve property changes so that it decreases or eliminates the dangerous environmental effects as well as make it possible to re-use every part of the waste or part.
|Facility for Treatment||Established locations for solid waste that are non-hazardous treatment.
|Sanitary landfill||Licensed location by the non-hazardous solid waste disposal ministry
|Recycling||The beneficial, controlled and selective division of particular parts of non-hazardous solids waste when it is generated or subsequently|
Hazardous waste management regulations
|The Ministry||Regional Municipalities and Environment Ministry
|Meaning of hazardous waste||Any waste gotten from activities including agricultural, industrial and commercial activities, that its quantity, composition, nature or other factors makes it to be potentially hazardous or hazardous to the health of humans, animals or plants, water, soil or air, such as, flammable, radioactive or explosive materials, that can lead to sickness and those that the Minister decides upon.
|Recycling||The beneficial, controlled and selective division of particular parts of a waste that is hazardous, during production or subsequently.
|Transporter||A transport Ministry licensee to move hazardous substances from one location to the other.
|Generator of wastes that are hazardous||The possessor as well as the agent of such possessor of a premises or land, of any kind where waste that are hazardous is produced. This possessor as well as his agent carrying out trade on materials that are hazardous or materials that have residues that are hazardous of any kind, irrespective of its origin.
|Note of Consignment||A record, which has all the hazardous waste quantity and category listing based on the Minister’s issued order that is relevant
|Facility for storage||Locations where hazardous waste can be received and stored temporary, which has a Ministry license.
|Pretreatment||Any biological, chemical or physical process or treatment, which leads to the innocuous or less noxious rendering of wastes of an hazardous nature such as deposition or other techniques of final disposal.
|Facility for pretreatment||The hazardous waste pretreatment location which the Ministry has licensed.
|Landfill Site for Hazardous Waste||A licensed site for landfill, where it is permitted for hazardous waste to be disposed by the Ministry.
|Ultimate disposal||Hazardous waste final disposal, subsequent to pretreatment and not having an environment or health risk.|
Muscat MSW Report
Based on the report, management of solid waste of a school located in Oman’s South Ghubra part, by the name, Al Maarefa is considered. Disposal, recycling, storage, collection, composition and generation of waste would be mentioned.
Based on the report, Al Maarefa School, which is an elementary institution, is one of the several producers in the Municipal. The school comprise of staff (manager, receptionist, teachers, etc) and students with classes (as well as art room, laboratory, teacher room, bathrooms and library).
Composition and Generation of Waste
- The school had 2 bathrooms, 11 classrooms, 23 staff and 130 students between 2004 and 2007.
During this time, about 0.36 kg per day was the average generation of waste per student. This implies that 4 * 130 * 365 * 0.36 which gives a total of 68,328 kg, was the total waste generated by the students within the 4 years.
During this time, about 0.18 kg per day was the average generation of waste per staff. 4 * 365 * 23 *0.18 which gives a total of 6,044.4 kg, was the total waste generated by the staff within the 4 years.
Between 2004 and 2007, the total generation of waste was 58,328 + 6044.4, giving a total of 74,372.4 kg which equals 82 tons.
- The school had 4 bathrooms, 24 classrooms, 52 staff and 320 students between 2008 and 2011.
During this time, about 0.68 kg per day was the average generation of waste per student. This implies that 4 * 320 * 365 * 0.68 which gives a total of 238,272 kg, was the total waste generated by the students within the 4 years.
During this time, about 0.47 kg per day was the average generation of waste per staff. 4 * 365 * 52 *0.47 which gives a total of 26,761.8 kg, was the total waste generated by the staff within the 4 years.
Between 2008 and 2011, the total generation of waste was 238,272 + 26,761.8, giving a total of 265,033.8 kg which equals 292 tons.
- The school had 5 bathrooms, 33 classrooms, 83 staff and 540 students between 2012 and 2014.
During this time, about 0.76 kg per day was the average generation of waste per student. This implies that 3 * 540 * 365 * 0.76 which gives a total of 449,388 kg, was the total waste generated by the students within the 3 years.
During this time, about 0.51 kg per day was the average generation of waste per staff. 3 * 365 * 83 *0.51 which gives a total of 46,357.35 kg, was the total waste generated by the staff within the 3 years.
Between 2012 and 2014, the total generation of waste was 449,388 + 46,357.35, giving a total of 495,745.345 kg which equals 546.5 tons.
The total generation of waste by Al Maarefa School equals 74,372.4 + 265,033.8 + 495,745.345 which equals 835,151.55 kg – 920.59 tons.
Figure 10: 2004 – 2007 generation of waste in Al Maarefa School (3)
Figure 11: 2008 – 2011 generation of waste in Al Maarefa School (3)
Figure 12: 2012 – 2014 generation of waste in Al Maarefa School (3)
Figure 13: Total generated waste for every type (3)
Collection of Waste
Every staff or student in Al Maarefa School is expected to use the waste containers provided in strategic locations across the school for waste disposal. Plastics, bags, bottles, papers and other solid wastes are disposed in waste baskets. Big black bags are subsequently used to empty the waste baskets by the sanitary staffs. The waste is subsequently disposed in containers for waste, which the authority has provided. The government takes over from here as they are expected to collect and separate the waste as well as transport them to the landfill or treatment plant.
Storage of Waste
The school provides basket, which is used for storing waste, during the school day in the school. As the day ends, collected waste is transferred to black bags from baskets. They are subsequently stored in big containers, which were supplied by the government and kept in the school’s exterior.
Recycling and separation of waste
Based on the kind of waste, waste is divided. Plastics, bottles and papers amongst others are divided and sorted into kinds. Non-recyclable wastes will be disposed, while the recyclable waste would be recycled.
Disposal of waste
Disposal of waste that were not recovered, recycled or burned will be carried out in Al Amirat landfill.
Issues with Management of MSW in Muscat
Currently, there is a good system for management of waste in Muscat. There have been decreased problems with health due to the use of the landfill for waste disposal as well as recycling of waste. There are however issues in the processes of managing waste including disposing, separation, recycling, storage and collection.
The disposal of waste issues includes several wastes that are mixed being sent to the landfill. A plastic sheet is used to cover them after they have been compressed at the landfill. This results in the formation of leachate which can contaminate ground water if it gets to the groundwater table. Also, inflammable materials could lead to explosions at the landfill. Furthermore, there is environmental pollution as a result of bad odor spread which originates from the landfill. Toxic gases are produced.
The surrounding areas are also bugged by bugs and insects, which breed in the landfill.
To address these issues, the Muscat management of MSW, be’ah, created a plan for management of waste which focus on recycling and reusing as depicted in Figure 14.
Figure 14: Disposal (4)
Incineration and Treatment Issues
There is no process for treatment for several types of waste in Muscat. Solid wastes, related to medicine are taken care of in Muscat. The rest are however sent to areas where there are landfills. This is due to the fact that the waste volume does not decrease during the process of treatment. A kind of process for treatment is combustion (incineration). Under certain conditions for control, the waste is burnt. Explosions could however happen during incineration as a result of flammable materials. Furthermore, the health of the workers could be at risk as a result of gases, produced while the materials were being burnt.
The landfill is used for incineration. The waste converts to heat, stream, gas and ash during this process. Some gases including dioxin that is released during burning can pollute the environment, with adverse effects. Nitrogen and sulfur oxides are also produced in incinerators which causes acid rain. Global warming issues also come up due to the production of carbon dioxide.
Recycling and Separation Issues
Waste is not sorted by individuals, before they dispose of it in Muscat. This leads to more government effort in sorting the big waste quantity. More time and money is thus needed. With awareness amongst the population however, time and money could be saved, when they are encouraged and convinced to sort their wastes before disposing. This will make the process of recycling faster. The issue with recycling of waste is that more workers and labor are required. Useful waste needs to be recycled with precision by the staffs.
The number of people in Muscat has increased so quickly that more generation of waste has been created. The quantity of waste storage containers should be increased across Muscat. For instance, the total house number in the neighborhood areas does not have adequate big containers. This leads to disease spreading due to waste accumulation. Furthermore, insects and animals are attracted to the source of waste. This results in pungent odor due to the container numbers that are not adequate.
Another storage of waste issue is the opening of the container to air. Particles of waste are often spread around the environment where ever there is serious wind.
Waste Collection Issues
The number of people in Muscat has increased so quickly that more generation of waste has been created. There is thus the need for more waste collection services to be provided. For instance, more lorries and trucks should be deployed to areas where there is insufficient vehicle for waste movement. More money and time would also be required. Most of the trucks and lorries for collection work on a daily basis in the area of down town. In locations which are not close however, waste collection is carried out in a week, just once. This leads to the accumulation of waste, which results in an ugly look and disease spread. Another issue of waste collection is the combination of non-hazardous waste with hazardous waste. This has negative effects on the health and environment.
Present Management of Waste Practices
- Facilities for treatment of hazardous waste (HWTF) are not enough. There are several temporarily stored hazardous wastes.
- Inadequate collection services
- Waste burning results to pollution.
Omani Waste Management Future
Be’ah is creating awareness programs and sustainable services to meet up with the required services.
Figure 15. Omani waste management future (5)
Furthermore, the hierarchy for waste is depicted in Figure 16
Figure 16: Hierarchy of Waste
In conclusion, the management of waste is necessary, so that wastes, produced by people can be disposed. This is to prevent environmental pollution and archiving the sustainability of the management of Waste.
Management of waste is an issue in Oman. Population growth in Oman has resulted to generation of waste increase. Measures are being taken by the government to give new regulation laws for institutions, industries and companies amongst orders, in modern methods and waste management.
In the future, different containers could be provided for different types of waste, so as to enable the sorting of waste by individuals.
. (Source: Waste Characterization and Quantification Survey, Be’ah, 2013). . Be’ah company, 2015 . Waste generation report, Muscat Municipality, Sultanate of Oman, 2010. . http://www.beah.om/municipal.php .* 2014 “Feasibility Report for Management of Electronic Waste in 2009”
** 2014 “Healthcare Waste Strategy in 2014”
*** 2014 “ELT Feasibility Study in 2011”
**** 2015 Estimate “Waste Characterization and Quantification Report in 2013”
***** 2009 Muscat Governorate Field estimate. Oman regulation, and low form municipality 2013. . Visit to Be’ah Company and collect the information (be’ah, 2014)